Excessive nitric oxide is a critical factor in the development of hypotensive episodes, as well as in migraine and cluster headache attacks. TrioxBio's MTR-104 acts by inhibiting Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), the enzyme that manufactures nitric oxide, thus preventing nitric oxide-induced vasodilation. Before 1987, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in human health was thought to be primarily as an irritant in air pollution. This view changed dramatically that year with the discovery of the production of NO in the body and the identification of the molecule's key role in biological signaling. In the years since this discovery, over 30,000 scientific papers on NO have been published, attesting to the intense interest in research devoted to this molecule. In recognition of the medical significance of the molecule, in 1998 the Nobel Prize in Physiology was awarded to the scientists who discovered the role of NO as a biological messenger. NO is a small gaseous molecule with chemical properties that make it uniquely suitable as both an intra- and inter-cellular messenger.
Because it possesses an unpaired electron, NO reacts with other molecules with unpaired electrons, especially superoxide, which can combine with NO to form peroxynitrite, a highly reactive and toxic radical. As a neutral gaseous molecule, NO can diffuse over several cell lengths from its source to exert control over certain enzymes and regulate key cellular functions. The combined properties of its ability to regulate enzymes across long distances, as well as its high reactivity with other molecules, award NO its unique dual role as both a powerful signaling molecule and a lethal effector molecule.
Because of these powerful functions, the production of this pivotal mediator is tightly regulated and there is ample literature to show that a deficiency or an excess of NO contributes to numerous human diseases and disorders. Conditions such as acute hypotension, intradialytic hypotension, migraine, cluster headache, hemorrhagic shock, tissue rejection, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes may all be associated with the overproduction of NO. Nitric Oxide is an important signaling molecule that acts in many tissues to regulate a diverse range of physiological processes. An excess of NO is a critical factor in the development of hypotensive episodes and migraine and cluster headache attacks.